The Weinkaufprotokolle des Amtes Esens, a record of property transfer fees from 1554 to 1811, shows that in 1587 the Weinkauf on Benser Vogtei Herd 8, previously owned by Hayo Bremers, is paid by “Haye Bremers Sohn Haike” (Hayo’s son Haike), suggesting that Hayo has died, and the farm has passed to the next generation. (The Weinkauf is a kind of title transfer tax.)
In 1589-90, a 200 Tl Weinkauf on Benser Herd 8 is paid by Tiarck Bremers. The likely interpretation is that Tiarck is a brother of Haike, both of them sons of Hayo Bremers, and that Tiarck is paying the transfer tax and taking over the farm because Haike has died.
In 1587 Haike pays “200 Tl. Er bezahlt 70 Rt am 11.1.87, 20 Gfl am 9.12., 24 Rt am 30.4., [für] Seriem item 64 Rt, noch 21 Tl 6 Sch. Ist ganz bezahlt. An anderer Stelle: noch Hartward 20 Rt 18 Sch. (4)”
That is: “He paid 200 Taler: 70 Reichstaler on 1 November 1587, 20 Goldgulden on 9 December, 24 Reichstaler on 30 April 1588, for the Seriem parcel 64 Reichstaler, plus 21 Taler, 6 Schaf. It’s fully paid. In another place [evidently a third parcel]: Also Hartward 20 Reichstaler, 18 Schaf.” This is recorded on Page 4 of the Weinkaufsprotokolle.
(The Schaf is a coin, worth 2 Stüber at the time. Today you can buy one from a collector for 485 euro: http://www.muenzauktion.com/olding/item.php5?id=233213. A 1564 East Frisian Reichstaler is available for 325 euro: https://www.muenzauktion.com/kleyer/item.php5?id=137. For more Ostfrisian coinage, see ma-shops.com. I do not have a good source to show how many Schaf were in a Taler, or how many Goldgulden were in a Reichstaler, but from the payments described above, it appears that 1 Goldgulden = 1 Reichstaler = 1 Taler.)
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This is an intriguing record. Heyko Heyken, who collected, edited, and published the Weinkaufsprotokolle records in 1998, suggests in a footnote that this 1587 Benser Vogtei record should be matched with the record from a nearby parcel, in the Seriemer Vogtei: Herd 13, or Parcel 13, at Klein-Holum. (Adjacent Seriemer Herd 14 and possibly 15 may also have been intertwined with the family history.) Seriemer Herd 13 is listed at 43 Diemat, smaller than the Ostbense parcel, but still of a decent size. Herd 13 and Benser Herd 8 may lie near each other, but the two parcels are taxed and recorded separately. By 1597, Heike’s brother Tiarck is paying the Weinkauf on Seriemer Herd 13, in addition to the Weinkauf he paid on Benser Herd 8 in 1589-90. So there is some familial connection.
Herd 13 could be, as Heyken suggests, the parcel for which Haike Bremer pays the “für Seriem” Weinkauf in 1587. If so, then the 1587 tax for 43 Diemat (85 Reichstaler) is at a higher rate (approximately 1.98 Rt/Dt) than the tax for the 70 Diemat parcel (115 Rt, approximately 1.64 Rt/Dt), which includes 30 Diemat of land described as “zu Betgenwerve.” The Weinkauf was probably adjusted not just for the quantity of land but also for the nature of the property, including land quality, use, buildings, and livestock.
Another interpretation could be that the 85 Rt designated “Seriem” is meant to pay for the 30 Dt of land in Herd 8 that is described elsewhere as “zu Betgenwerve.” We might posit that the “zu Betgenwerve” land is contiguous with the rest of Herd 8 but on the other side of the Bettenwarfer Leide, and so in the Seriemer tax district. (Herd 8 is on the eastern boundary of the Benser Vogtei, or bailiwick, and the 1675 Regemort map, as copied in 1787, suggests that the farm may have straddled the border.)
If this is the case, then 115 Rt of the 200 Rt Weinkauf that Heike paid for Herd 8 would be applied to the 40 Dt of Herd 8 that lies in the Benser Vogtei, and the 85 Rt “Seriem” portion would be applied to the 30 Dt of “zu Betgenwerve” land. This makes for a more uniform tax rate, of approximately 2.85 Rt per Dt for both sections of the Herd.
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Herd 13 in the Seriemer Vogtei is described as the farm of Remmer Koncken, even as late as 1632, long after he has died and no longer owns the farm. (He may be a brother of Pecke Koncken, who owns Herd 24 at Bettenwarfen in 1600, and of Folkert Koncken, making all three the sons of Koncke Remmers.) Remmer is listed as the owner of Seriemer Herd 13 at the time of the 1570 “All Saints Flood.” About 1590, his daughter Rinnolt pays the 180 Rt Weinkauf, which means the property transfers into her hands.
But who owns the Seriemer property before it transfers into Rinnolt’s ownership in 1590? The only Weinkauf record shows it belonging to Remmer Koncken, Rinnolt’s father.
If, as Heyko Heyken suggests, Haike Bremers paid the 64 Rt Weinkauf on it in 1587 at the time of his father Hayo’s death, then Herd 13 belonged to Haike before it transferred to Rinnolt. Why would Haike pay the Weinkauf on the Remmer farm in 1587, when Hayo dies? Had Hayo bought it from Remmer, without recording a Weinkauf payment? This is possible, but it seems unlikely.
Or had Haike taken over Seriemer Herd 13 from Remmer without paying the Weinkauf?
One might guess that Haike had married Rinnolt, Remmer’s daughter. In this case, it might be plausible that Haike started farming the land, so the transfer could have been gradual and escaped notice of the Weinkauf authorities. (It is not clear when Remmer died. Local church records don’t go that far back.)
If Haike was already the de facto land owner in 1587, then when his father died, he might have paid a small (85 Rt) Weinkauf on the Seriemer land, in addition to the Weinkauf on his father’s land, to make his ownership official. Then, if Haike dies in 1590, his wife Rinnolt (or some other new owner) must pay the full Weinkauf (now 180 Rt) as the property changes into new hands.
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But perhaps a better explanation is that Haike and Rinnolt never married or held land together. Possibly the 85 Rt Weinkauf that Haike pays for “Seriem” in 1587 is strictly for a 30 Dt portion of his father’s property that is on the Seriem side of the line that divides the bailiwicks.
Then we could guess that Rinnolt’s father Remmer dies in 1590, and she pays the 180 Rt Weinkauf on his 43 Diemat (4.19 Rt/Dt).
Haike happens to die in 1589, and his brother Tiarck takes over Haike’s farm, which had belonged to their father. Tiarck now pays a 200 Tl Weinkauf on 70 Dt (2.86 Rt/Dt, the same as his brother paid a few years before). The timing matches the 1590 transfer of Seriemer Herd 13 into the hands of Rinnolt Remmers, but that may be strictly coincidental.
In this scenario, after Rinnolt and Tiarck have each paid their Weinkauf and come into their separate properties, they marry, and it is only then that the two farms come under one ownership.
In 1597, Tiarck Bremer pays the 180 Rt Weinkauf on Rinnolt Remmers’ Seriemer Herd 13, “wegen seines Sohnes Haye” (on behalf of his son Haye). This is probably when Rinnolt died. She and Tiarck had two sons. Their son Hayo inherited the farm. The other brother moved to Esens.
The names Rinnolt and Remmer are both carried down among Tiarck Bremers’ descendants.
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The Weinkaufprotokolle itself has an intriguing history, best covered in a separate article.
At this period in local history, it is unusual for a family name to be entered in the records. Most people were identified by their given name plus their patronymic: Tiarck Haigen[son], or Tiarck, the son of Hayo. It is noteworthy that for several decades of successive generations of this family, the records identify them as Bremer or Bremers.