by Heyko Heyken
(translation by Doug Bradley)
It has been over 20 years since I came up with my plan, proposed to the then leader of the “Genealogy Working Group” in the East Frisian Landschaft, Mr. Hans-Rudolf Manger, to continue the work begun by Dr. Heino Mammen evaluating the Weinkauf records of the Esens Amt. [Today the Genealogy Working Group has become the Upstalsboom-Gesellschaft für historische Personenforschung und Bevölkerungsgeschichte in Ostfriesland: Upstalsboom Society for Historical Research of Persons and Population History in Ostfriesland.] On the proposal of Mr. Manger, I first turned, together with my wife, to the Wittmund Amt. Thus appeared in 1985 “The Inhabitants of the old Wittmund Amt 1565-1752” (Booklet 18 of “Sources and Research”), and in 1995 “Wittmund and Its People from 1540 to 1800.”
But I never lost sight of the Weinkauf record of Amt Esens. After the “Wittmund Work” was completed, the old plan could finally be realized.
It is to the final credit of Dr. Mammen, who began the work, that the rich material in the Staatsarchiv Aurich was tapped to reveal the extraordinarily important Weinkauf records. As Supplement 2 of “Sources and Research on East Frisian Genealogy and Heraldry,” published by the Working Group of Genealogy and Heraldry in the East Frisian Landschaft, “The Weinkaufs of the Amt Esens” for the years 1554-1700 appeared from 1963 to 1965, followed in 1966 by the record for the years 1701-1743. Both volumes are long since out of print and no longer available.
As with Dr. Mammen, my distant ancestors also came from the Harlingerland. Since I could always use this source, it was my heart’s desire to keep Dr. Mammen’s work alive through a revision, to extend it in time and to round it out, thereby making these resources available in reworked form for future generations of researchers.
The basis of the current revision remains Dr. Mammen’s evaluations. Herein the text and interpretations and the numbering is largely adopted, and all previously missing numbering has been added. However, it has been found to be appropriate for the use of the modern practitioner not to continue with Dr. Mammen’s choice to use a chronological arrangement. Thus the former template had to be reorganized according to individual farms [Herde]. It is a testament to the care with which Dr. Mammen worked that in only a few casesin relation to the total number, vanishingly fewdid a different assignment of an individual Protokoll have to be made.
For the period from 1701 to 1743, the end of the feudal era [Fürstenzeit], Dr. Mammen had available only the Record of the Staatsarchiv Rep. 4 B IV n Nr. 288 a I. [Old designation: Rep. 6 Nr. 15778.] Here another set of Weinkauf decisions was called in for the years 1714 to 1743 (Rep. 46 Nr. 857), to which the original results for this period could not be added in a relevant way [?].
Subsequently, the analysis was extended by adding the Weinkaufs as far as 1810/11. Thus the voluminous files of Rep. 6 Nr. 854 (1752-1761) and Nr. 855 (1761-1772), as well as Rep. 46 Nr. 857 (1714-1736, 1776-1811) and Nr. 858 (1736-1776), were evaluated. Unfortunately, further Weinkauf records are not known, although some taxes were paid up to the last quarter of the 19th century.
A particularly valuable addition is the incorporation of the Land Survey of Amt Esens by the engineer Regemort from 1670 and onward. The numbers from this survey, kept on file and transferred to the maps he drew up, are now listed with each Platz [each farm or Herd]. [In the Holtriemer Vogtei the details are available only for Barkholt and Holtgast.] Thus the researcher is able to determine the specific location that matches a particular Herd. Facilitating and simplifying this addition was previous work by Mr. Wiard Hinrichs, of Göttingen/Berdum, who had assigned the numbers of about 4,500 Regemort parcels to individual properties [Grundstücke] in the Amt, on the basis of Dr. Mammen’s analysis. The Regemort maps, each one showing all the parcels in a particular Vogtei, can be found in the Staatsarchiv in Aurich. Reproductions are in the Heimatmuseum Esens or can be made accessible from there. [The Heimatmuseum Esens is now the Museum Leben am Meer, still in a windmillthe Peldemühlein central Esens. Electronic copies of the Regemort maps can be obtained direct from the Staatsarchiv in Aurich; see elsewhere on this site for versions of these electronic files, edited to match information available in the Weinkaufsprotokolle and elsewhere.] A historical reduced copy of the map of the Werdumer Vogtei is attached as an example at the start of the records [in Heyken’s book] from this Vogtei.
In addition, the losses from the 1570 All Saints’ Flood [Allerheiligen-Flut, 1 November 1570: All Saints’ Day, the day after All Hallows’ Eve], published in the Emden Yearbook, 1942, pp. 24-55, in particular the loss of cattle, horses, swine, etc., have been inserted into [the notes for] the affected farms. Until now, only the name and the respective reference had been given.
The introductory essays previously written by Dr. Mammen were revised and partly supplemented, but essentially accepted.
My thanks go to the men and women of the Niedersächsischen Staatsarchiv [Lower Saxony State Archive] in Aurich, particularly Mr. Stefan Pötzsch, for their sympathetic helpfulness and support. I also have to thank Mr. Helmut Hinrichs, of Wittmund, for clarifying so many concepts, and Mr. Wiard Hinrichs, of Göttingen/Berdum, for his valuable contributions.
Hamburg, June 1998